The volume consists of a collection of fifteen contributions on Political Theory, whose focus intersects different topics and perspectives. More specifically, a series of philosophical, moral, political, psychological, medical, anthropological, and mythosymbolical issues are considered within this collection. All contributions are divided into three main sections. A first section concerns ethical, moral and constitutional issues of Political Theory. This section includes the contributions of Fabrizio Sciacca, Cassandra Basile, Andrea Germani, and Paola Russo. A second section is devoted to the analysis of political myths and representations. This section consists of the contributions of Giangiacomo Vale, Viviana Faschi, Giada Fiorese, Raffaella Sabra Palmisano, Alessandra Spano, and Giuseppe Ambrosio. A third section focuses on the analysis of certain political dynamics of Modernity. This last section includes the contributions of Michele Lanna, Federica Rauso, Cornelia Stefan, Michele Olzi, and Maria Rosaria Vitale.