A NEW PHILOSOPHY FOR SPACE AND SUSTAINABILITY

1 Longrich, N.R., When did we become fully human? What fossils and DNA tell us about the evolution of modern intelligence, “The Conversation”, 2020; http://theconversation.com/when-did-we-become-fully-human-what-fossils-and-dna-tell-us-about-the-evolution-of-modern-intelligence-143717

2 May, A., The Space Business from Hotels in Orbit to Mining the Moon. How Private Enterprise is Transforming Space, London: Icon Books Ltd, 2022.

3 Wellernstein, A., A bomb without Einstein?, “Restricted Data. The Nuclear Secrecy Blog”, 2014, June 27; https://blog.nuclearsecrecy.com/2014/06/27/bomb-without-einstein/

4 Brundtland, G., Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future, United Nations General Assembly, document A/42/427, 1987.

5 Baalke, R., Mars Meteorite Home Page; https://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/snc/

6 Limos, M.A., There Could Be Dinosaur Bones on the Moon, Says Scientist, “Esquire”, 2021, January 20; https://www.esquiremag.ph/long-reads/features/dinosaur-bones-on-moon-a00293-20210120

7 Martin, L. and Wilson, N. (Eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Creativity at Work, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-77350-6

8 The Sustainable Development Goals, issued in 2015 by the United Nations as core element of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, are a set of 17 objectives aimed at providing the global community with a shared agenda to pursue a future of peace and prosperity for the planet and for humankind. More specifically, they call private and public players to partner to end poverty, improve health and education, minimize inequalities, foster economic development, and preserve the environment. Source: https://sdgs.un.org/goals

9 Yellowstone National Park, Frequently Asked Questions: “Bison”, 2021; https://www.nps.gov/yell/learn/nature/bisonfaq.htm

10 Camus, A., The Myth of Sisyphus (Second Vintage international edition). Vintage International: Vintage Books, a division of Penguin Random House LLC, 2018 (1942).

11 Nash, E.R., NASA Ozone Watch: Ozone hole history facts, NASA, 2018; https://ozonewatch.gsfc.nasa.gov/facts/history_SH.html

12 Handbook for the international treaties for the protection of the ozone layer: the Vienna Convention (1985), the Montreal Protocol (1987), Nairobi, Kenya: Ozone Secretariat, United Nations Environment Programme, 2000.

13 Galileo Galilei, Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations Concerning Two New Sciences, Hassell Street Press, 2021 (1638).

14 Loyson, P., Galilean Thermometer Not So Galilean, “Journal of Chemical Education”, 89 (9), 2012, July 27; https://doi.org/10.1021/ed200793g

15 Blumenthal, I., The development of the clinical thermometer, “Proceedings of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh”, 28 (1), 1998.

16 Kellett, J., The Assessment and Interpretation of Vital Signs, in M.A. DeVita, K. Hillman, R. Bellomo, M. Odell, D.A. Jones, B.D. Winters, G.K. Lighthall (Eds.), Textbook of Rapid Response Systems, New York: Springer International Publishing, 2017; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-39391-9_8

17 Churpek, M.M., Adhikari, R., Edelson, D.P., The value of vital sign trends for detecting clinical deterioration on the wards, “Resuscitation”, 102, 2016; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2016.02.005

18 New Mexico Museum of Space History, Galileo Galilei, 1991; https://www.nmspacemuseum.org/inductee/galileo-galilei/

19 How satellites are used to monitor climate change, “Carbon Brief”, 2016, February 18; https://www.carbonbrief.org/interactive-satellites-used-monitor-climate-change

20 Apollo 1, NASA, 2017, August 7; http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/apollo/missions/apollo1.html

21 In 2017, the United States started the Artemis program, a project intended to return humans to the surface of the Moon, with the aim of taking a step forwards towards the exploration of other celestial bodies (starting from Mars). The Artemis Accords consist in a series of multilateral agreements between the United States and other countries intended to establish the signatories’ collaboration in the context of the Artemis program according to principles grounded in the Outer Space Treaty (guidelines published in 1967 by the United Nations; they are the main international treaty that governs activities related to space exploration and use). Source: https://www.nasa.gov/specials/artemis-accords/index.html

22 Orloff, R.W., Apollo by the Numbers: A Statistical Reference, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2013.

23 Brown, D., SpaceX’s Launch Control Room: 3 Rocket Missions in 31 Hour, “The New York Times”, 2022, December 29; https://www.nytimes.com/2022/12/29/science/spacex-launch-mission-control.html

24 Ansar, A., Flyvbjerg, B., How to Solve Big Problems: Bespoke Versus Platform Strategies, “Oxford Review of Economic Policy”, 610, 2022, 127919.

25 Crutzen, P., Stoermer, E., The Anthropocene, “Global Change Newsletter”, 41, 2000.

26 The Anthropocene Working Group, The Anthropocene: an update, “Geo Q. 12”, 2014.

27 Fagan, R., Mordecai, M., Before Soleimani’s death, concerns about Iran had fallen in many countries including the U.S, Pew Research Center, 2020, January 23.

28 Wolfe, F., Russian Direct Ascent ASAT Test Generates More Than 1,500 Pieces of Trackable Debris, “Defense Daily”, 2021, November 15; https://www.defensedaily.com/russian-direct-ascent-asat-test-generates-more-than-1500-pieces-of-trackable-debris/space/

29 Garcia, A.M., Space Station Maneuvers to Avoid Orbital Debris, NASA, 2022, October 24; https://blogs.nasa.gov/spacestation/2022/10/24/space-station-maneuvers-to-avoid-orbital-debris/

SPACE RESEARCH FOR EARTH

30 Brown, D., Why Is NASA Neglecting Venus?, “The Atlantic”, 2017, January 19; https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2017/01/venus-lost-generation/513479/

31 Garthwaite, J., What other planets can teach us about Earth, “Stanford News”, 2020, March 4; https://news.stanford.edu/2020/03/04/planets-can-teach-us-earth/

SATELLITE SERVICES FOR CLIMATE CHANGE

32 Gallup, Environment, “Gallup”, 2022; https://news.gallup.com/poll/1615/Environment.aspx

33 Holmes, S.A., Bradley Effect, “Pollsters Debate”, 2008, October 12.

34 ESA, What is an Essential Climate Variable?, ESA Climate Office, 2023; https://climate.esa.int/en/evidence/what-are-ecvs/

SPACE SOLAR POWER

35 Space Energy Initiative, Space-Based Energy solutions to address global energy challenges, 2023; https://spaceenergyinitiative.org.uk/

36 Xinhua, China to build space-based solar power station by 2035, “Xinhuanet”, 2019, December 2; http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2019-12/02/c_138599015.htm

37 Snowden, S., Solar Power Experiment Launched by Navy Research Lab On X-37B Space Plane, “Forbes”, 2020, May 27; https://www.forbes.com/sites/scottsnowden/2020/05/27/solar-power-experiment-launches-on-secret-space-plane/

38 Arizona Power Authority, History of Hoover Dam, 2022; https://powerauthority.org/about-us/history-of-hoover

39 Ramirez, R., The West’s historic drought is threatening hydropower at Hoover Dam, “CNN”, 2022, August 16; https://www.cnn.com/2022/08/16/us/hoover-dam-hydropower-drought-climate/index.html

COMMUNICATING AND MOVING ON THE MOON

40 Davies, C., ESA pushes ahead on Starlink-GPS style hybrid network for the Moon, “SlashGear”, 2021, May 20; https://www.slashgear.com/esa-pushes-ahead-on-starlink-gps-style-hybrid-network-for-the-moon-20673779/

41 Future development of lunar economy planned by Telespazio and Inmarsat, “Telespazio”, 2022, July 18; https://www.telespazio.com/en/press-release-detail/-/detail/pr-moonlight-inmarsat

42 The Lunar Gateway is a key component of the Artemis program consisting in a multi-purpose station orbiting the Moon and serving as an outpost both to support human presence on the Moon and for exploration missions directed towards other celestial bodies. Source: https://www.nasa.gov/gateway

43 Papike, J.J., Simon, S.B., Laul, J.C., The lunar regolith: Chemistry, mineralogy, and petrology, “Reviews of Geophysics”, 20 (4), 1982; https://doi.org/10.1029/RG020i004p00761

44 Li, S., Lucey, P.G., Milliken, R.E., Hayne, P.O., Fisher, E., Williams, J.-P., Hurley, D.M., Elphic, R.C., Direct evidence of surface exposed water ice in the lunar polar regions, “Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences”, 115 (36), 2018; https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1802345115

45 Mars & Beyond. The road to make humanity multiplanetary, “SpaceX”; https://www.spacex.com/human-spaceflight/mars/

SPACE HABITATS CIRCULAR TECHNOLOGIES

46 Roa, J., Introduction. Current challenges in space exploration, in Id., Regularization in Orbital Mechanics, Berlin: De Gruyter, 2017; https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110559125-001

47 Zabel, P., Schubert, D., Bamsey, M., Eden ISS. Executive Summary 12/2014, Zenodo, 2014; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.29670

SPACE MINING TECHNOLOGIES

48 Brown, A., As Unpredictable as Humans: I, Robot  by Isaac Asimov, “Tor.Com”, 2022, June 29; https://www.tor.com/2022/06/29/as-unpredictable-as-humans-i-robot-by-isaac-asimov/; Lufkin, B., Asteroid Mining in Fiction, Past and Present, “Livescience”, 2012, April 24; https://www.livescience.com/19862-asteroid-mining-fiction-present.html

49 Nozette, S. (Ed.), Defense Applications of Near-Earth Resources, La Jolla: California Space Institute, 1983; https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a340021.pdf

50 The Outer Space Treaty ( Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies) was promoted and opened for signature by the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States in January 1967 and came into force in the autumn of that year, under the auspices of the United Nations. Today, as then, it provides the basic framework of international space law. As of December 2022, there were 112 parties and 89 signatories. Source: https://treaties.unoda.org/t/outer_space

SPACE SECTOR SUSTAINABILITY

51 Berry, D.S. et al., Automated Spacecraft Conjunction Assessment at Mars and the Moon – A Five Year Update, NASA, 2018; https://hdl.handle.net/2014/48222

52 The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) defines HAPS (high-altitude platform stations) as radio stations located on an object at an altitude of 20-50 kilometers and at a specified, nominal, fixed point relative to the Earth, intended to provide broadband connectivity in regions with limited or no terrestrial networks, such as remote areas or in areas struck by natural disasters. Source: https://www.itu.int/en/mediacentre/backgrounders/Pages/High-altitude-platform-systems.aspx

53 In 2019, the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space published 21 Guidelines for the Long-term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities, which were undersigned by 92 member states (including the United States, Russia, China and Iran), with the purpose of preparing a set of measures recognized internationally and aimed at ensuring the long-term sustainability of space activities beyond the Earth’s atmosphere and promoting safety in space operations. Source: https://www.unoosa.org/res/oosadoc/data/documents/2018/aac_1052018crp/aac_1052018crp_20_0_html/AC105_2018_CRP20E.pdf

SPACE DEBRIS

54 Liou, J.-C., Risks from Orbital Debris and Space Situational Awareness, Washington DC: IAA Conference on Space Situational, 2020; https://ntrs.nasa.gov/api/citations/20200000450/downloads/20200000450.pdf

55 United States Department of State, The Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, 2023; https://www.state.gov/key-topics-office-of-environmental-quality-and-transboundary-issues/the-montreal-protocol-on-substances-that-deplete-the-ozone-layer/

56 IEA, The Covid pandemic has slowed progress towards sustainable energy goals even as renewables continue to gain ground, 2022, April 1; https://www.iea.org/news/the-covid-pandemic-has-slowed-progress-towards-sustainable-energy-goals-even-as-renewables-continue-to-gain-ground

57 Jakhu, R.S., Jasani, B., McDowell, J.C, Critical issues related to registration of space objects and transparency of space activities, “Acta Astronautica”, 143, 2018; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2017.11.042

58 Roberts, T.G., Space launch to Low Earth Orbit: how much does it costs?, “Aerospace Security”, 2022; https://aerospace.csis.org/data/space-launch-to-low-earth-orbit-how-much-does-it-cost/

59 Tomaswick, A., According to a US Auditor, Each Launch of the Space Launch System Will Cost an “Unsustainable” $4.1 Billion, “Universe Today”, 2022, March 14.

60 ESA, OMAR. On orbit manufactured spacecraft, 2022, June 5; https://nebula.esa.int/content/omar-%E2%80%93-orbit-manufactured-spacecraft

61 Harbaugh, J., NASA’s Centennial Challenges: 3D-Printed Habitat Challenge, NASA, 2016, October 5; http://www.nasa.gov/directorates/spacetech/centennial_challenges/3DPHab/about.html

NORMATIVE FRAMEWORK

62 Kennedy, J.F., Historic speeches: Rice University, on the Nation’s Space Effort, 1962, September 12; https://www.jfklibrary.org/learn/about-jfk/historic-speeches/address-at-rice-university-on-the-nations-space-effort

CONCLUSIONS

63 Service, R., How an ancient cataclysm may have jump-started life on Earth, “Science”, 2019; https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaw6068

64 Ancient origins of multicellular life, “Nature”, 533, 441, 2016; https://doi.org/10.1038/533441b; Herron, M.D., Borin, J.M., Boswell, J.C., Walker, J., Chen, I.-C. K., Knox, C.A., Boyd, M., Rosenzweig, F., Ratcliff, W.C., De novo origins of multicellularity in response to predation, “Scientific Reports”, 9 (1), 2019; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39558-8

65 Convention Relating to the Regulation of Aerial Navigation, signed at Paris, 1919, October 13.

66 Brown, D.W., The Mission, Custom House – Harper Collins, New York 2021.

67 Howell, E., International Space Station: everything you need to know, “Space.com”, 2022, August 24; https://www.space.com/16748-international-space-station.html

68 Warner, C., NASA Welcomes Nigeria, Rwanda as Newest Artemis Accords Signatories, NASA, 2022, December 12; http://www.nasa.gov/feature/nasa-welcomes-nigeria-rwanda-as-newest-artemis-accords-signatories

69 United States Department of State, Artemis Accords: Principles for Cooperation in the Civil Exploration and Use of The Moon, Mars, Comets, and Asteroids for Peaceful Purposes, 2020, October 13.

70 United Nations, Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, 1967.

71 United Nations, UN Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, 1979.

72 NASA Office of the Inspector General, Artemis Status Update, 2021.

73 UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, Guidelines for the Long-term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities, 2021; https://spacesustainability.unoosa.org/content/the_guidelines

74 Brokaw, S., International Space Station maneuvered around Russian satellite debris, “UPI”, 2022, June 20; https://www.upi.com/Science_News/2022/06/20/international-space-station-maneuvers-around-russian-satelitte-cosmos-1408-debris-nasa/2891655748476/

75 Corrao, G., Analysis of the Cosmos 1408 ASAT, “Linkedin”, 2022, March 18; https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/analysis-cosmos-1408-asat-giuseppe-corrao/

76 Foust, J., Russian ASAT debris creating “squalls” of close approaches with satellites, “SpaceNews”, 2022, February 18; https://spacenews.com/russian-asat-debris-creating-squalls-of-close-approaches-with-satellites/

77 Todd, D., One Starlink launch batch does not look very healthy: one in five satellites appear to have failed, “Seradata”, 2022, January 25; https://www.seradata.com/one-starlink-launch-batch-does-not-look-very-healthy-one-in-five-satellites-appear-to-have-failed/

78 Davenport, C., The Pentagon is looking for garbage collectors in space, “The Washington Post”, 2022, Janiary 30; https://www.washingtonpost.com/technology/2022/01/27/space-debris-pentagon-contract/

79 Pultarova, T., Commercial space clean-up service could be ready in 2024, “Space.com”, 2021, May 26; https://www.space.com/commercial-space-debris-removal-2024-astroscale

80 Howlett, A., OneWeb, Astroscale, and the UK and European Space Agencies Partner to Launch Space Junk Servicer ELSA-M with €14.8 million Investment, “Astroscale”, 2022, May 27; https://astroscale.com/oneweb-astroscale-and-the-uk-and-european-space-agencies-partner-to-launch-space-junk-servicer-elsa-m-with-e14-8-million-investment/

81 Internet penetration in Africa January 2022, by country, “Statista”, 2022; https://www.statista.com/statistics/1124283/internet-penetration-in-africa-by-country/

82 U.S. household dial-up internet connection usage 2019, by state, “Statista”, 2022; https://www.statista.com/statistics/185532/us-household-dial-up-internet-connection-usage-by-state-2009/

83 Clery, D., Starlink already threatens optical astronomy. Now, radio astronomers are worried, “Science”, 2020; https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abf1928

84 NASA, Shuttle Tire Sensors Warn Drivers of Flat Tires, “NASA Spinoff”, 2019; https://spinoff.nasa.gov/Spinoff2019/t_2.html

85 NASA, NASA Spinoff Brochure 2022, “NASA Spinoff”, 2022, p. 64; https://spinoff.nasa.gov/

86 NASA, Fogless Ski Goggles, “NASA Spinoff”, 1976; https://spinoff.nasa.gov/node/9613

87 United Nations, The Sustainable Development Goals Report, 2022; https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/report/2022/

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